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  • 社区养老
  • 文章编号:1009-6000(2022)01-0006-09
  • 中图分类号:TU984    文献标识码:B
  • Doi:10.3969/j.issn.1009-6000.2022.01.002
  • 项目基金:国家自然科学基金项目“住区建成与社会环境影响老年人心理健康的交互效应甄别及规划干预”(52078095);国家自然科学基金项目“北方既有住区建筑品质提升与低碳改造的基础理论与优化方法”(51638003)。
  • 作者简介:岳亚飞,硕士,大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院城市规划系,比利时根特大学医学和健康科学学院活动与运动科学系,联合培养博士研究生; 杨东峰,通信作者,博士,大连理工大学建筑与艺术学院城市规划系,教授,博士生导师; 徐丹,硕士,大连理工大学土木建筑设计研究院有限公司,注册规划师。
  • 建成环境对城市老年居民心理健康的影响机制 ——基于客观和感知的对比视角
  • How Built Environments Affect Urban Older Adults’ Mental Health: Contrasting Perspective of Observation and Perception
  • 浏览量:
  • 岳亚飞 杨东峰 徐丹
  • YUE Yafei YANG Dongfeng XU Dan
  • 摘要:
    城市建成环境的基本属性是影响老年居民心理状态的重要因素。可测得和可感知是从客观和主观维度对建成环境要素的描述,两者对老年人心理健康的综合作用方式仍未探寻及验证。因此,论文结合积极生活生态模型、社会—生态健康模型和环境—心理健康模型等理论,以大连市为例,融合多源异构时空数据,利用结构方程模型,从建成环境的客观和感知视角检验对老年人心理健康的对比作用及内在影响机制,并在排除可能的居住、自选择样本后进一步进行验证。通过研究发现:超市、餐饮和美发店等基本服务设施的邻近性和聚集程度通过直接和感知的中介途径差异性影响老年人心理健康,高聚集度会通过感知路径的噪声、不安全感和环境卫生状况等对老年人心理产生消极作用;步行道路的密集度和局部整合度、深度、连接度等车行道路的连通性在老年人日常出行范围的局限下对其心理层面的干预有限;住区配套休闲、景观和锻炼等设施的多样性通过直接和感知的中介路径同时正向作用于老年人心理健康;住区的地下停车和高层的电梯设施相比于地面停车和多层步行上下楼对老年人心理有更为积极的影响;总体上相比于客观建成环境感知环境在发挥中介效应的同时对老年人心理健康的作用也更为显著。
  • 关键词:
    建成环境老年人心理健康感知结构方程模型
  • Abstract: The basic attribute of urban built environment is an important factor affecting urban older adults’ mental states. Observation and perception are descriptions of built environment from objective and subjective perspectives, and their comprehensive effects on older adults’ mental health have not yet been explored and verified. This paper took Dalian city as an example to test the comparative effect and internal influence mechanism on older adults' mental health from the objective and perceptual perspectives of the built environment. Structural equation model was used to integrate multi-source heterogeneous spatial and temporal data, combining ecological model of active living, social-ecological models of health and environment-mental health model, and model is further validated by excluding the samples who selected residence by themselves. There were some findings: the proximity and aggregation degree of basic service facilities such as supermarkets, restaurants and barbershops that affected older adults’ mental health through direct and indirect perceived pathway, the high degree of aggregation had the negative effects due to perceptual mediating pathway brought by the noise, insecurity and environmental sanitation; under the influence that the daily travel range of older adults was limited to local areas, the density of walking path and the connectivity of roadway were difficult to interfere with the older adults’ psychological state; the diversity of leisure, landscape and exercise facilities in the residential area positively affected older adults’ mental health through the directed and mediating pathway of perception; underground parking and highrise elevator facilities in residential areas had a more positive impact on older adults’ mental health than ground parking and no elevator; on the whole, the perception to built environment had a mediating effect and plays a more significant role to older adults’ mental health.
  • Key words: built environment; older adults; mental health; perception; structural equation model
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